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While horizontal lines adorn structures likes tables, chairs and beds, vertical lines can be found on windows, doorways and almirahs. While horizontal lines add a safe and secure feeling to the space, vertical lines emote free and expansive nature. Dynamic or angular lines, which are action oriented add drama and can be seen on structures like stairs. An interior designer must know how to utilize these lines to define the forms, another important interior design element.
Lines 3. Forms Forms mean shapes in general, an outline of any three dimensional object in the space. Forms can be created by combining two or more shapes and can be accentuated with the help of other elements like texture, patterns and colors. A well-defined form establishes harmony and additional forms add balance to the space. There are two types of forms — Geometric man-made and Natural organic.
Also forms are categorized as open and closed; open forms are those that can be looked into and closed forms are those that are enclosed by a closed surface. A solid understanding of the above mentioned elements i. Forms 4. Light Light is one of the most obvious elements of interior design. Either natural or man-made, without light other elements namely color, texture and pattern have no significance at all.
Light sets in the mood and ambience into a living space and highlights the every other element including space, line and forms. While smart placement of doors and windows should take care of the natural light, man-made or artificial lighting is broadly divided into three major types namely — Task Lighting, Accent Lighting and Mood Lighting. Task light as the name implies, includes light sources like table and bed lamps which have a defined purpose, dedicated for a specific task.
Accent lights are meant for highlighting a particular piece or show item like artworks, structures, sculptures and so on. Mood or ambient lighting basically set the mood of the living space and illuminate the overall space. Light 5. Colors establish an aesthetic connection between objects and set the mood. Colors must be chosen based on the psychology and the mindset of the dweller. For example, red is an excellent choice for dining room as it encourages appetite and green for bedroom as it is the color of tranquility and health.
There are three " grades of steel in accordance with the percentage of carbon. Low carbon or mild steel. Medium carbon or hard steel. High carbon steel.
Steel is used for trusses, beams, griiIs, mechanical devices and sheets. They are of several types. Three of these metals are of important use in building industry. Pure aluminium is very soft and it is mixed with other metals like copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese and others to increase tensile strength and hardness while retaining the character of lightness and durability.
It is. It is used for roofmg, window frames, glazing bars, posts, panels. It is resistant to atmosphere corrosion and not affected by soil,. It is used for roofmg, water service pipes, cable coverings and ornamental work. Pure copper is of lustrous red colour, light, tough and good.
It is used for electric wires, cables, roofing and electroplating. Alloys It is an intimate mixture of two or more metals. Commercial brass contains 65 percent copper and 35 percent zinc. Properties of brasses vary considerably by changing these proportions. It resists corrosion but needs regular cleaning. It is used for door and window fittings, household utensils and hardware.
Bronzes are hardened copper. They are stronger and superior to brass in cOrrosionresistance. It is difficult to work and niore expensive. It is used for frames, grills and hardware. A Gypsum - It is a combination of calcium sulphate. The remaining product is known as 'plaster of paris'. It is used for ornamental work and its products are hard-surfaced, contours and they are sufficiently strong. Gypsum plaster is rendered more plastic by the addition of clay on hydrated lime.
Its cohesiveness adding hair or shredded wood fibre. C Plaster board - It isa large sheet of gypsum plaster faced on both sides with stout paper as a reinforcement. Depending upon the. Gypsum lath board, when the. Plaster wall board, when facing paper is of self-finish type for decoration.
They have good insulation properties and used for ceilings and partitions. D Asbestos - It is naturally occuring mineral substance composed of hydrous silicates and contains small amount of" iron oxide and alumina. It is largely uSed for preparing Asbestos Cement, which is used for making pipes and roofing material. Asbestos felt is used as damp' proof layer for insulation and.
They are classified into two types: Organic adhesives are made out of animal blood albumin, vegetables, milk and other organic wastes.
B Synthetic adhesives are permanent, strong, water proof and made out of chemical resins. Describe the properties and uses of the following building materials: The importance of plumbing services is well known in a building. This knowledge helps an Interior Designer to plan the interiors efficiently keeping in view of these service requirements.
Water supply in residential buUdings Public water supply system consists of collection, conveyance, treatment and distribution. Water is distributed for consumption in a building through internal water distribution system. Water supply in a building depends on the size: Large and tall buildings create numerous. Water piping system may be basically horizontal or vertical.
Systems above the. In tall buildings water is pumped to elevated tanks, so that it can flow down. Adequate water is needed for drinking, fire protection and general use.
Before designing a building water requirement should be calculated keeping the present and future needs of the 9ccupants. Availability of sufficient quantity of water sources like municipal water, ground water and surface water should be found. Normally municipal water is treated and supplied, whereas ground and surface water should be properly treated as per the need. Distribution of water is done"with pipes internally in a building.
From this tank, water is pumped to the roof level for storing separately for drinking and general use. From these storage tanks, water is supplied by gravity pressure in separate pipes for drinking and general use. Piping materials Cast iron, steel, concrete and asbestos cement are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. Copper, lead, Zinc, brass, bronze and plastic are used in small pipes, valves, pumps and 'other appurtenances.
Common pipe joint materials are lead, cement, sand, rubber, plastic and sulphur compounds. Stoneware pipes are mostly used for underground work. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely used for distribution mains.
Concrete pipes may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. Galvanisedpipes of steel or wroughtiron are widelyused for distributionsystems. Lead pipes are not generally used for domestic water supply. They can be used for flushing and overflow pipes inside the buildings. PVC pipes are more flexible, conosion resistant, light weight, easy to handle and install.
It is comparatively cheaper. They are not suitable for hot water installations. The surface and rain water is also let into the sewers in the combined drainage system. The waste water is let into the municipal sewers through underground chambers like manholes connected by traps like gully trap, intercepting trap, grease trap, silt trap and ventilating pipes. The primary function of the trap is to seal the foul air entering the building.
Traps Traps prevent entry of foul gases and odour from municipal sewers and drains. Depending on the need, a water seal is created as a barrier. The depth of the water seal can be between 35 rom to 75 rom.
These traps should be created as close to the unit as possible. Efficiency of the water seal depends on the depth of the water. Traps should be made of non-absorbent material. Entry inlet into a drain should be properly trapped with a water seal.
It should be provided with a cap or plug for cleaning. Traps can be made of different shapes. Most conimon shapes of traps are p. Q and S. See Fig. They are employed to receive sullage or waste water from wash basins, sinks and baths and pass it on to the house d'mns. Gully traps should be fixed near the surface level of the flOQr. There should be a grating on top of the tiap to block solid matter.
Pipes should be connected to the gully trap below the grating. In combined system of sewage the rain water is also passed into the house drains through the gully traps. It disconnects the house drain from the street sewer. It can be fixed in the last manhole of the house or in a separate small chamber between tbe lowest end of the house drain and the street sewer. It has a comparatively deeper water seal than ordinary trap and an opening at the top of the trap known as 'cleaning eye'.
This opening is closed with a plug. The intercepting traps should be properly flushed out otherwise they wilJ not be of much use.
These oily substances deposit solids in the house drains and municipal sewers. To avoid this, grease traps are used. Grease trap can be a small cast iron or masonry chamber with a bent pipe as on outlet. The oily substances float to the surface to form a scum on top. The bent pipe allows the sewage to flow out while retaining the scum. This scum cari be removed out from the top. These particles need steep slopes and higher velocities.
These should be trapped and removed in silt traps. These silt traps are required where extensive utensil washing is carried out like hotels and restaurants. Silt and grease traps can be combined. Waste Water Disposal Waste water Disposal is done through inspection chambers or manholes, septic tanks and with proper ventilation systems.
It is provided at every junction or change of direction or gradient and at 30 m intervals in the long straight lengths. TIle drainage pipes are opened out in these chambers to form channels.
The bottom is given steep slope towards the open channel in the centre of the chamber. This prevents blockages and deposits of soil in the pipes. The chambers are closed from top with cast iron covers to prevent escape of foul gases. The size of the chamber depends on the underground depth and number of branches to be connected See Fig.
This system is useful where municipal sewerage system is not available. In the septic tank lighter matter rises to the surface and form a thick layer called 'scum' while heavIer matter sinks to the bottom as 'sludge', The tanks are made air-tight, water-tight and excluded from light to help the sewage decomposition process.
The layers of scum and sludge are not disturbed. The size of a septic tank depends on the number of users. A septic tank should be initially filled with water and constructed far away from the house. The effluent may be disposed into a cesspool.
The size of the cesspool depends on the absorption capacity of the soil and the number of users. A cesspool is constructed with bricks or stones with open joints below the level of inlet pipe.
The cesspool may be filled with gravel or brickbats at the bottom. It should not be located within 30m radius of a drinking water well or bore well. If the foul gases does not escape into the air, they may break the water seal of the traps.
The ventilation ducts dilute the foul gases and their poisonous effects. These fresh air inlets can be provided by an outlet pipe directly connected to the underground drain or over the manhole and rise above the roof level of the building.
The fresh air inlet should be vertical, about mm diameter, atleast 3 m above ground level and with a slotted cast iron head on top. A long 30 to 50 nun diameter cast iron pipe is used as an outlet pipe.
In addition to this, ventilation system should be provided on every soil and waste pipe of every water closet and bath. When wc's of more than one floor are connected with the same soil pipe, an anti-siphonage pipe or vent pipe is fixed to the outlet side to both the traps to prevent siphonic action and emptying of the sealed traps in the lower water-closets when the upper water-closet is flushed.
The vent pipe can be taken up to the top of the soil pipe and provided with a wire globe. This vent pipe should be taken above the level of the building roof. Sanitary appliances There are various types of sanitary appliances available in the market.. Most commonly used sanitary appliances are a Wash basins b Sinks c Showers d Bath tubs e Urinals j Flushing cisterns g Water closets a Wash basins - There are various types and shapes of wash basins for different uses.
They are made of cast iron, steel, porcelain and plastic materials. The standard wash basin consists of a bowl, soap tray and holes for tap and water overflow.
TIley may be supported on cast iron brackets screwed to the wall or on a pedestal concealing the pipework. They 'are normally fixed at 0. There are three types of sinks. They are Belfast type, ordinary type and stainless steel type. The belfast type has water overflow which passes water to the waste pipe. A drain board may be fixed on either side of the sink or the drain can be integrated into the sink. Ordinary sink is similar to Belfast type but it does not have proVision for water overflow.
Stainless steel sinks have drain board on either side or on one side with single or double bowls as per the need. It is more hygienic and takes less space and water. The mixer may be thermostatic or non-thermostatic. The shower tray is made of plastic and porcelain materials.
The bore of the supply pipes is 13 mm and the pipes should be as short as possible to avoid frictional losses. The minimum height above the shower outlet should be 1. In place of a shower tray, hU'ger tiled space is also used for taking shower on some occasions.
Bath tubs are used for relaxed bathing. They are made of porcelain, steel and plastic materials. These tubs are provided with holes for hot and cold water pipes for mixing before taking bath.
Provision is also made for water overflow and waste outlet. These bath tubs can be made of different fancy shapes and sizes. Normally the length varies from to cm, width varies from 55 to 58 cm and depth 40 to 45 cm.
The bottom of the tub is supported with short legs on the floor. Slab and stall type urinals are used in public toilets. The stall type consists of curved stalls with dividing pieces and glazed channel. The foot rests should be non-slippery and sloping towards the channels. Ordinary brick walls with cement plastered surfaces are not suitable for urinals. They should be cladded with glazed tiles and joints should withstand the chemical reaction.
The urinal waste pipes can be in plastic or lead with 50 mm diameter. Not more than seven urinals should drain into one outlet. Urinals are normally made of glazed tiles. Flushing cisterns are made of cast iron, porcelain and plastic materials. There are two types of cisterns, the bell type and the disc type, which are most commonly used. The bell type of flushing cistern is noisy. The cistern is operated by pulling down the chain and lifting the bell. When the water runs down it takes away some air and it results in vaccum on the tDp of the bell.
The water gets empty within few seconds due to the syphonic action. The water to the cistern is supplied through ball valve arrangement. The disc type flushing cistern is commonly used in all types of buildings. The cistern is operated by a lever which lifts the piston and water is tlushed by siphon action.
There arc other types of Ilushing cisterns like flushing trough and automatic flushing cisterns and valves. A flushing trough is used as an alternative to separate nushing cisterns for the flushing of more number of wc's. Automatic flushing cisterns and valves are also used for similar purpose in puolic toilets.
In Indian type of wc, squatting pan is used. There arc two types of flushing systems adopted. They are wash down type and syphonic type. In the wash down type a high level tlushing cistern ahove the door level is used for flushing. In the syphonic type, a low level flushing cistern is used. The surfaces ofthe bowl are cleaned totally in this type. This is particularly used in western wc's. When the cistern is flushed the water flows through the outlet, which is designed to slow down the flow of water and the pipe is filled with water causing siphonic action.
The siphonic wc's are comparatively quieter in operation. Table 4. Different sizes of pipes D. Plumbing systems. There are four systems of plumbing for building drainage. In multistoreyed buildings the lavatory blocks on different floors are placed above one another so that the waste water from different units can be carried through common vertical pipes connected by short branch drains.
Thus only one main pipe. All traps of wc's and wash basins are completely ventilated whereas gully traps and waste pipes are not provided. There is only one soil pipe for colfecting the discharge from all water closets, baths, sinks and basins. A relief vent pipe for ventilating only the traps of wc's is provided.
The soil pipes are directly cOIlllected to the drain, whereas waste pipes are coIlllected through a trapped gully. All traps are completely ventilated. In India, the two pipe system is comparatively more convenient because close grouping of fixtures is not necessary.
However in multistoreyed buildings one pipe system is preferable because close grouping of toilets is necessary for convenience and economy. Residence drainage plan The Fig. It is assumed that the drainage and sewer lines are combined.
Describe the water supply systems in multi-storeyed buildings? Describe various traps used in the sanitation of buildings? What are the different wa. Describe the important sanitary appliances? What are the various plumbing systems adopted in buildings? Ventilation means supply of fresh air and removing dust, heat and other pollutants for human comfort. Natural ventilation is very important for healthy living.
These poorly ventilated buildings' are not in city slums, but in densely built up areas, particularly in the centre of the city. As an Interior Designer, it is essential to ensure good natural ventilation in any building interior. Natural ' ventilation helps in improving hygienic conditions.
For any type of interior design and planning, it is important to create healthy living conditions otherwise there is no difference between old and new buildings. Everything stands next only to this primary concern. The following factors should be taken into consideration for natural ventilation. AtIeast one window should be provided on the windward wall and another window on the opposite side of the wall.
In case of a room with only one wall exposed outside, two windows are preferable' than a single window.. Windows located directly opposite to each other perform beUer. Maximum air movemeIit is achieved by keeping the silI height at 0.
Verandah open on three sides increases air motion in an adjoining room. The average wind velocity inside a room may be around 27 percent of the out door air velocity. Openings of equal size are preferred in regions having fairly constant wind direction. Ventilation with fans Mechanical ventilation is necessary, where natural ventilation is not possible and to remove pollutants.
The use of mechanical ventilation will allow for provision of air temperature control, humidity and purity. Buildings of different use demand different quantities of fresh air for their occupants. It is expressed in terms of air changes per hour. For air motion, fans and exhaust fans are used. Fans should be chosen based on the area to be ventilated and not on the size of the room alone. They should be uniformly distributed for proper.
The following table can be used as a thumb rule, but precise ventilation requirements should be calculated based on the activity performed in the room or building. Table 5. Fans for rooms of different sizes Source: Central Building Research Institute, India. Ventilation with ducts While designing ducts for air, number of features should be incorporated. The duct should be smooth. The number of changes of directions of the duct should be minimised. Branches from main ducts should be made with a gradual curve and should not be sharp.
Galvanised mild steel is the most widely used duct material. This may be pressed into rectangular sections and bolted or riveted. Circular ducts can also be made with wrapped flat sheets. As the size of;the duct increases, there is a possibility of the wall vibrating due to the air movement.
Efficient delivery of air to rooni spaces involves detailed calculation oeair flow velocities. At the points of delivery, the cross sectional profile of the duct may become smaller.
Conical diffusers are best for efficient throw of air into the space. Dampers within the ducts will control the flow of air and resists spread of fire. Ventilation ducts may extend to all areas of a building creating potential routes for noise transfer.
Proper care should be taken to contain it. Bureau of Indian Standards, Air change per hour is the volume of outside air allowed into a room in one hour compared with the volume of the room.
However, there is a scientific method of calculating the openings for permanent ventilation based on Bureau of Indian Standards, Openings of the size obtained by the following equation should be provided on wind facing wall and also on the opposite wall. What are the guidelines for good natural ventilation? Describe the methods of mechanical ventilation?
How do you calculate the size of openings for good natural ventilation? Humidity The control of humidity in the air is very important. Dry air puts strain on the nasal vassages of the nose making them dry and irritating.
To avoid this moisture is added to the heated' air. This process is called 'Humidification', and it is done d;11fingthe winter season. The moisture is extracted from the cOOled air during summer. This process is called 'Dehumidification'. Normal relative humidity should be between 40 to 60 percent in the air. The desirable relative humidity for human comfort is 40 to 50 percent during summer and 50 to 60 percent during winter.
Apart from these, air can have suspension dust particles, bacteria etc. In winter the cycle involves. Both these operations should be done for a whole year use in the case of composite air conditiorring, The following filters are used for air cleaning. Impingement filters. The impurities in the air are trapped and retained in the filter element. The materials normally used are glass fibre, steel wool, bronze or copper wool etc. Dry strainer filters These fIlters have collecting surfaces made of cloth, felt, glass fibre etc.
Electrostatic precipitators These fIlters remove dirt by electrically charging the particles and then attracting them on to a plate. SteriUsation of air. Some organisms are removed by air washing.
In, this process ultraviolet light is used for sterilisation.
This light is used on the air duct leading to the conditioned space. Odour control , The earlier method is by diluting with outdoor air. The present method is to use chemiCaldeodarants to reduce odour. All structural elements used in the buildings like floors, roofs and walls should offer enough resistance to the transmission of heat from outside.
The foUowing cycle is involved in air-conditioning of any system a Sucking the outside air through a fIltering media. Cleaning of air 2.
Cooling or heating of air 3. Humidification or Dehumidification of air 4. Circulation of air tllfOUgh ducts 5. AC space 6. Foul air taken out by exhaust faDs 7. Mixing of outside and used air B. The followingtenns are cODimonly used in air-conditioning systems: Complete air-conditioning is used where the temperature systems: The necessary equipment is assembled on the spot than in the factory. The entire space to be air-conditioned is divided into different areas.
The temperature and humidity can be adjusted according to the specific requirements of each area. This system is economical because one system serves. Smaller units are kept within the room and larger units are placed at a different place and connected by ducts. This system is designed for application in smaller establishments like shops, restaurants etc.
Most of them are air-cooled units to be placed on a window sill or near a source of outside air. Some of them are available for winter heating also. These units are self-contained. Sometimes a combination of the two systems is preferred.
The major refrigeration methods used for. Mechanical vapour compression system B. Vapour absorption system A. Generally, if the pressure is increased then the transformation also increases quickly. The refrigerant at a pressure and temperature can be made to evaporate by allowing it expand to a lower pressure with the help of a throttle.
It will have to absorb heat from the surroundings. Through compression the heat is rejected. This principle is used in the vapour system In this process, the refrigerant used is water.
Water absorbs heat while boiling. The evaporation is absorbed by a solution of lithium bromide. The weak lithium bromide solution is pumped into a generator where steam heats the solution.
This heating bOils the lithium bromide solution giving away the water. This principle is used in the vapour absorption system. Most commonly used equipment in refrigeration and air-conditioning system are compressors, evaporators, condensers, cooling towers, spray ponds, expansion valves, air handling units and dUCl-;. Air-conditioning has become a specialised area requiring the services of a specialist for design, particularly for large spaces like cinema theatres, auditoriums, hospitals etc.
In deciding the type of system for cooling, there arc many factors which should be taken into consideration like number of windows, occupants, floor level, building orientation etc. The following. The following table should be taken only as a thumb rule for calculation. Table 6. What are Describe What are What are the atmospheric conditions required for human comfort? What is the need for air-conditioning? Natural lighting is the light available in nature. We perform all our activities in this daylight.
Daylight is nothing but sunlight on earth. Intensity of sunlight varies depending upon the atmospheric conditions. Sunlight is very bright in the morning and dull in the evening. Its brightness is more in the afternoon causing glare, and we try to protect our eyes with a shade from this glare.
When we construct buildings we try to make use of this daylight to perform our activities inside a sheltered space. The availability of the daylight within a building will not be the same as it is outside because of the roof and walls of the structure.
The admission of daylight into the building depends upon the number of openings provided in the building. If the building -isopen on all thefour sides then the daylight is not cut-off by any obstruction, but such a situation is uncommon in the densely populated areas 'Qfthe city. In India, it is preferable to use as much daylight as possible to save energy. However, it is not possible on many occasions to provide totaldaylight'inside the building.
On such occasions, a combination of artificial and natural lighting is preferable. This will help to save energy without sacrificing lighting requirements. It is difficult to measure the availability of daylight inside a building, but certain factors can be taken into consideration to measure it. This is called as 'Daylight Factor DF ', which is expressed in percentage. The daylight factor includes the following: Thus the daylight available inside a building is only filtered and reflected sunlight.
The value of sky Component SC is zero, when there is a complete roof over a building. Light coloured surfaces have high reflection factor and dark coloured surfaces have low reflectioh factor. The other parameters essential in interior daylighting design are outdoor atmospheric conditions. The required number of openings can be derived from the Fig. The following assumptions are made, forcalcu1ating the openings for natural lighting in the Fig. The ceiling of a room should be, preferably, painted in white colour to reflect more light.
The corners of a roomcan be provided with windows to avoid dark corners. Broad openings give better distribution of light Deep openings niinimise giare. What is daylight factor? What are the guidelines for good natUralligbting? Artificial lighting is necessary duIing the nights and also when natural lighting is poor. Wide variety of lamps are used to enhance the design and appearance. There are many interior spaces without sufficient daylight and almost dark in many cases.
Under such conditions, an Interior Designer is compelled to resort to artificial lighting. Apart from this, artificial lighting has become a fancy.
Keeping this in mind, different types af lighting arrangements are dis ''1lssed belaw: Direct lighting In direct lighting the SQurce af lighting is exposed 1bere are different types of direct lighting apart from direct exposure of the bulb..
It is a comfortable type af lighting because the light is actually directed towards the activity like reading or writing. The light is not directed towards the eyes, so. Even though the sources of light is nat seen, the light is projected dawnwards wherever it is needed to. Down lighters are useful for reading and othef'activities perf armed at a fixed place ina room. It can light up dark areas of a room as it can be directed.
It has greater flexibility and occupies less space. If it is used with discretion, it is very effective and dramatic.. A simple track is wired and fitted on the. The track is usually four feet lang and can take faurlights, which need not be af the same type. Variaus types af lamps can be attached to the track at any point and directed towards the required side. Spotlights can be used to illuminate a painting or to get a special effect.
It can be fixed to. The light saurce is covered by a shade. It is f'txed and cannat be maved or directed towards any place. Sametimes it is anlvnossible to. Indirect lighting Indirect lighting is more flexible and less harsh than direct lighting but it gives less light. Some light is last because it is reflected from a surface. Lot depends an the nature af that surface. The reflector can be a wall ar part of the fitting. The colour and texture af the reflector will affect the quantity and quality af light emitted.
These type of f'tttings are good for general lighting and nat for warking. It can be used in the rooms af a house where general lighting is needed for relaxing. Saftness and brightness can be achieved by reflecting the light from a wallar ceiling. Diffused lighting In this type of fittings, light is emitted through a diffuser such as glass, plastic and fabric.
The shade gives the form af light. The quantity and quality af tight depends on the sharle. They can be made to appear modem or ald. Old glass oil lamps and chandeliers are aften used as diffused glass shades. Fabric shades can also be used. Composite lighting In camposite lighting several types af lighting are used. In the living room of a house saft relaxing indirect lighting is needed but at the same time it may require direct lighting for reading or working.
The f'tttings like angular lamps and dawn lighters can be used fram electric sackets far such activities. Concealed lighting In cancealed lighting the fittings are hidden so that only light is seen.
This is dane with the help af fluarescent strips or spats or fIaads. When these are hidden behind a pelmet ar baffle, they can give good effect The curtain pelmet hides the strip light. Light is thrown an the material giving it a rich look. The pasitioning of such concealed f'tttings is very important otherwise they may nat give the desired effect.
These are reduced by step-down transformers at sub- stations. These are further brought down by local transformers. Bulk of the artificial lighting generated is alternating current AC. Alternating means that the current flow direction is constantly reversing at the rate of 50 times per second.
A single phase supply is most commonly used for residential consumers. Industrial and commercial consumers may take the three phase supply.
In three phase supplies a fuse or circuit breaker is fitted to each phase. Electric lighting is distributed through. Lamps can be divided into three categories: Incandescent lamps. These are also known as tungsten lamps, which are most commonly used in homes. They consist of a thin filament of tungsten inside a glass bulb. When current is passed, heat is produced and the temperature of the filament rises. The filament is designed in such a way that it reaches a temperature generating light energy and heat, which means that the filament glows or it is incandescent, so the lamp is known as incandescent lamp.
These type of lamps cannot give a daylight colour. Tungsten halogen lamps In a normal incandescent lamp the filament loses. The inert gas inside the bulb reduces the rate of evaporation but it cannot prevent completely. Improvement can be obtained by adding halogen to the gas giving rise to a reversable chemical reaction. Tungsten evaporates from the filament and diffuses towards the bulb wall.
This makes it necessary for the filament to be at a higher temperature than in an ordinary tungsten lamp and the bulb should be smaller. It has longer life and a higher light output than an ordinary tungsten lamp. It is useful for floodlighting and. It is most widely used in automobile headlamps.. Fluorescent lamps The fluorescent lamp depends on the discharge of a current through a gas or a vapour at a low pressure.
A fluorescent lamp consists of a long glass tube containing a mixture of mercury vapour and argon gas at a pressure. When the lamp is cold, the mercury is in the form of small globules on the surface of the tube. The argon gas is needed to start the discharge.
The radiation emitted by the current discharge thr: Any colour may be used for the fluorescent coating. So many fluorescent materials are available to obtain almost any colour, including daylighL The circuit includes a starter and a choke to regulate the passage of current. Fluorescent lamps have a lower surface brightness and higher efficiency in terms of light energy.
The production process is more difficult, so these tubes are more expensive. Mercury lamps Mercury lamps are discharge lamps which operate on the same principle as fluorescent lamps.
At high pressure the radiation emitted by the mercury can be used without a fluorescent coating. It is converted into a visible red by a fluorescent coating on the inner surface, and the combined light from the arc tube and the coating has a colour which is considered acceptable for street, factory and warehouse lighting.
Sodium vapour lamps Sodium vapour lamps are similar to mercury lamps, but sodium is used for filling instead of mercury. The discharge which starts in the neon is of red colour. This warms the tube and gradually vapourises the sodium. After nearly twenty minutes. The sodium discharge lamp is the most efficient means of converting electric. High pressure sodium lamps give a sunny yellow light.
High pressure sodium lamps have avery high efficiency and long life. Two types of sodium vapour lamps are shown in the figure See Fig. Metal halide lamps The colour of a mercury lamp can be improved by the addition of another metal. This can be achieved by using the metal in the form of its halide salt.
The general design of metal halide lamps is similar to that of mercury lamps. These lamps may have clear glass or fluorescent coating. These lamps have a better colour rendering than incandescent lamps. They are mostly used for official and commercial purposes. Cold cathode lamps These lamps are used for illumination of cinema theatres and other commercial purposes like advertising.
The advantage of cold cathode lamps is their long life. It also maintains better ,output during its life and starts instantly. Its 'life is not reduced by frequent switching. Like ordinary fluorescent tubes, it is available in wide variety of colours. The length of cold cathode tubes makes them suitable for bending into different shapes like letters, symbols etc.
Many colours can be obtained by the, use of different types of glass, which may be coloured or fluorescent coated. The first used gas was neon and 'Neon light' is a popular name for all advertisement lighting. Proper care should be taken in its installation and maintenance to avoid the risk of fire. H; FliCker All lamps, except the incandescent lamps, described so far go on and off times in a second while working.
This is too rapid a flicker to be noticeable to the eye. However the flickering is possible with twin lamp luminaires.
Theluminaire is made with one choke for each lamp but with only one capacitor. The two lamp currents are neither in step nor out of phase, and they go on and off at different instants. They are often required for factories and workshops. Emergency lights Many buildings prefer to have some form of emergency lighting if the electric supply to the ordinary lights fail.
Electric lighting for emergency use can be provided if the building has a stand by generator The distribution should be arranged in such a way that only a part with few lights within the building is fed by the generator.
There is no need for full lighting under emergency conditions, and lightiIlg in the main corridors and staircases is sufficient. Emergency lighting is very important fQr hospitals. Some offices, cinema theatres, schools and residentialtJatsalso need emergency lighting. They are not iJltended to give full illumination, but sufficient lighHorpeople to perform their activities. These lights work on low voltage DC current and fed from a' battery. Thus as long as the main supply is healthy the battery'l ghting circuit is, kept open, but immediately once ti1emaifiSfail the relay contacts close and the emergency lights come on.
It effectively houses a complete low voltage system to operate one light. Such fittings are known as accessories, because , they are accessory to tl e wiring. The way these acce. They are. Standard boxes for recessing within a wall are 35 mm deep. The shallow boxes are 25 mm deep, WhIChcan be used over the surface of the wall. The older type of switch mechanism was dolly operated. At present, dolly operated switches have been superseded byr9Cker operated switches.
When the front plateJs made as part of the switch, then it is called plate switch. T isolate power eqUipment, it is often desirable to use a double pole switch. This is normally used for heaters, fridges etc. Sockets A socket outlet is popularly known as a power point.
The arrangement of socket outlet is similar to switches. Plugs and sockets rated at 2 and 5 amps are available in both two and three pin versions, but 15 amps are available only with three pins.
Two of the three pins are for the live and neutral wires, and the third one is for a separate earth wire. Unswitched sockets have contacts permanently connected to the wiring and the appliance to be connected is turned on as soon as the plugi,s inserted and turned off, when the plug is taken out.
If a switch is incorporated in the socket outlet the switch must be put on before the line becomes connected to the supply. A further improvement to the socket outlet is the addition of an indicator light which shows when the socket is switched on. Like switches, sOCket outlets can be recessed into a wall or they can be mounted on the surface of the wall.
Fused connection units These units are used for connecting a single permanently fixed appliance to the wiring. They perform the same function like a socket and plug combination. The difference is that the two parts cannot be separated as plug and socket.
The difference is the fuse connection which is accessable for replacement from the front. Like socket outlets, fused connecting units can be switched or unswitched, and they can be with or without a neon light indicator. Boxes When wiring is done by pulling cable through conduit, access must be provided into the conduit for pulling the cable inside, and also where the paths of cables branch into two or more conduits must be connected together.
The type of box used is the same as that used for housing switches. The boxes have a number of circles on them for the electrician to remove anyone of them to make a hole in the box to accept standard electrical conduit.
In addition to rectangular boxes, circular boxes are also made for general conduit work and terminating wiring at points to take light fittings. When boxes are used for joining conduits, they are covered with a blank plate.
TV outlets Today many houses and flats have a television, which may require connection to an outdoor aerial. It is becoming iQcreasingly common td provide a common aerial system serving all the flats of an estate.
Thus it becomes necessary to run a television aerial cable from the aerial to an outle'. A television needs power supply, soan ordinary socket outlet is provided near the aerial outlet. Lamp-holders In public buildings, the light fittings are fixed as part of the electrical installation.
In houses and flats..
Plain lamp-holders are provided to fit in ordinary and watts, tungsten bulbs. They usually have a ring to which. The top of the lamp-holder screws down to grip the flexible wire 'cord on which it is suspended from. The insulated wire on which the lamp-holder is suspended performs two functions.
It carries the current to the lamp and supports the wp-ight of the holders, lamp and shade.
Lamp-holders have protective shields to prevent accidental contact and dampness.