Inside Active Directory Mastering Active Directory for Windows Server Read more · MCSE Windows Server Active Directory Infrastruktur. a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other for both Active Directory and Microsoft Exchange Server. Logical Concepts of Active Directory. • Physical Concepts of Active Directory. • DNS in 10 Minutes. • Overview of Active Directory Replication. • The role played.
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Logical Concepts of Active Directory; Physical Concepts of Active Directory; DNS in 10 Minutes; Overview of Active Directory Replication; The role played by. Chapter 3 Introducing Active Directory. Windows Server Active Directory is the core component in a Windows domain environment. The Active. Differing Views of Active Directory. .. critical for security professionals to know in order to defend Active Directory. Many security professionals aren't very.
The only exception to this is that users who are members of the domain administrators Domain Admin group are able to log on to the network even when a global catalog is not available.
In a forest that contains many domains, the global catalog lets clients quickly and easily perform searches across all domains, without having to search each domain individually. The global catalog makes directory structures within a forest transparent to end-users seeking information. Most Active Directory network traffic is query-related: users, administrators, and programs requesting information about directory objects.
Queries occur much more frequently than updates to the directory. Assigning more than one domain controller to be a global catalog server improves response time for users seeking directory information, but you must balance this advantage against the fact that doing so can also increase the replication traffic on your network. Operations Master Roles Multimaster replication among peer domain controllers is impractical for some types changes, so only one domain controller, called the operations master, accepts requests for such changes.
Because multimaster replication plays an important role in an Active Directory-based network, it is important to know what these exceptions are.
In any Active Directory forest, at least five different operations master roles are assigned to the initial domain controller during installation. When you create the first domain in a new forest, all five of the single master operations roles are automatically assigned to the first domain controller in that domain.
In a small Active Directory forest with only one domain and one domain controller, that domain controller continues to own all the operations master roles. In a larger network, whether with one or multiple domains, you can re-assign these roles to one or more of the other domain controllers.
Some roles must appear in every forest. Other roles must appear in every domain in the forest. The domain controller holding the schema master role controls all updates and modifications to the schema.
The schema defines each object and its attributes that can be stored in the directory.
To update the schema of a forest, you must have access to the schema master. The domain controller holding the domain naming master role controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest.
Whenever a domain controller creates a user, group, or computer object, it assigns the object a unique security ID SID. The security ID consists of a domain security ID which is the same for all security IDs created in the domain , and a relative ID which is unique for each security ID created in the domain. It processes password changes from clients and replicates updates to the BDCs. The PDC emulator receives preferential replication of password changes performed by other domain controllers in the domain.
If a logon authentication fails at another domain controller due to a bad password, that domain controller forwards the authentication request to the PDC emulator before rejecting the logon attempt. The infrastructure master is responsible for updating all inter-domain references any time an object referenced by another object moves.
For example, whenever the members of groups are renamed or changed, the infrastructure master updates the group-to-user references. When you rename or move a member of a group and that member resides in a different domain from the group , the group may temporarily appear not to contain that member. The infrastructure master of the group's domain is responsible for updating the group so that it knows the new name or location of the member.
The infrastructure master distributes the update using multimaster replication. Unless there is only one domain controller in the domain, do not assign the infrastructure master role to the domain controller that is hosting the global catalog. If you do, the infrastructure master will not function. If all domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog including the situation where only one domain controller exists , all domain controllers have current data and therefore the infrastructure master role is not needed.
Top of page Architecture Once you have installed an Active Directory domain controller, you have simultaneously also created the initial Windows domain or added the new domain controller to an existing domain.
How do the domain controller and domain fit into the overall network architecture?
This section explains the components of an Active Directory-based network and how they are organized. In addition, it describes how you can delegate administrative responsibility for organizational units OUs , domains, or sites to appropriate individuals, and how you can assign configuration settings to those same three Active Directory containers.
Objects Active Directory objects are the entities that make up a network. An object is a distinct, named set of attributes that represents something concrete, such as a user, a printer, or an application.
When you create an Active Directory object, Active Directory generates values for some of the object's attributes, others you provide. For example, when you create a user object, Active Directory assigns the globally unique identifier GUID , and you provide values for such attributes as the user's given name, surname, the logon identifier, and so on.
The Schema The schema is a description of the object classes the various types of objects and the attributes for those object classes.
For each class of object, the schema defines the attributes that object class must have, the additional attributes it may have, and the object class that can be its parent. Every Active Directory object is an instance of an object class.
Each attribute is defined only once and can be used in multiple classes.
For example, the Description attribute is defined once but is used in many different classes. The schema is stored in Active Directory. Schema definitions are themselves also stored as objects—Class Schema objects and Attribute Schema objects.
This lets Active Directory manage class and attribute objects in the same way that it manages other directory objects. Applications that create or modify Active Directory objects use the schema to determine what attributes the object must or might have, and what those attributes can look like in terms of data structures and syntax constraints.
Objects are either container objects or leaf objects also called noncontainer objects. A container object stores other objects and a leaf object does not.
For example, a folder is a container object for files, which are leaf objects. Doing so adds all instances of that attribute to the index, not just the instances that are members of a particular class. Indexing an attribute helps queries find objects that have that attribute more quickly You can also include attributes in the global catalog.
The global catalog contains a default set of attributes for every object in the forest, and you can add your choices to these. Both users and applications use the global catalog to locate objects throughout the forest.
The attribute should be one that is needed for locating objects even if just for read access that may occur anywhere in the forest. The attribute should be unchanging or change rarely. Attributes in a global catalog are replicated to all other global catalogs in the forest. On the Results page, verify that the installation succeeded, and click Promote this server to a domain controller to start the Active Directory Domain Services Configuration Wizard.
On the Deployment Configuration page, choose one of the following options: If you are installing an additional domain controller in an existing domain, click Add a domain controller to an existing domain, and type the name of the domain for example, emea.
Note My Collection Page 13 of 82 The name of the domain and current user credentials are supplied by default only if the machine is domain-joined and you are performing a local installation. If you are installing AD DS on a remote server, you need to specify the credentials, by design. If current user credentials are not sufficient to perform the installation, click Change in order to specify different credentials. If you are installing a new child domain, click Add a new domain to an existing forest, for Select domain type, select Child Domain, type or browse to the name of the parent domain DNS name for example, corp.
If you are installing a new domain tree, click Add new domain to an existing forest, for Select domain type, choose Tree Domain, type the name of the root domain for example, corp. If you are installing a new forest, click Add a new forest and then type the name of the root domain for example, corp. For more information about which options on this page are available or not available under different conditions, see Domain Controller Options.
For more information, see Password Replication Policy. If you are adding a domain controller to an existing domain, select the domain controller that you want to replicate the AD DS installation data from or allow the wizard to select any domain controller. If you are installing from media, click Install from media path type and verify the path to the installation source files, and then click Next. You cannot use install from media IFM to install the first domain controller in a domain.
IFM does not work across different operating system versions. In other words, in order to install an additional domain controller that runs Windows Server by using IFM, you must create the backup media on a Windows Server domain controller.
On the Preparation Options page, type credentials that are sufficient to run adprep. On the Review Options page, confirm your selections, click View script if you want to export the settings to a Windows PowerShell script, and then click Next. On the Prerequisites Check page, confirm that prerequisite validation completed and then click Install. On the Results page, verify that the server was successfully configured as a domain controller.
The server will be restarted automatically to complete the AD DS installation. In the second stage, a server is attached to the RODC account. The second stage can be completed by a member of the Domain Admins group or a delegated domain user or group.
In the navigation pane left pane , click the name of the domain. In the Tasks Pane right pane , click Pre-create a read-only domain controller account. Click Pre-create Read-only Domain Controller account. What is Active Directory? Before AD was created by Microsoft, computers were standalone devices and hard to manage. For example, imagine we are in the year right now, and you are the systems administrator for a company of people, and you need to install a new printer for all employees in the office, how you go doing that?
That would be a lot of work to accomplish a simple thing. A lot of things that we systems administrators take for granted today like file and print sharing, network group policies, etc. How does Active Directory work? The way I have always picture AD is that of a phone book.
A phone book basically matches names to phone numbers, Active Directory matches user accounts to network objects and resources. One significant difference of AD is that it saves objects in a hierarchical order, and all objects are unique.