# Basic electrical technology pdf

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Electricity is everywhere; it lights our way, cooks our food and can even brush your teeth. For an example, imagine where the medical field would be without electricity and in that sense how many lives have been saved due to electrical devices like defibrillators, pacemakers, etc. Read on to discover more about basic electrical theory. What is Electricity? So what is electricity and where does it come from? More importantly, why is carpet, socks and a doorknob a bad combination? In its simplest terms, electricity is the movement of charge, which is considered by convention to be, from positive to negative. No matter how the charge is created, chemically like in batteries or physically friction from socks and carpet , the movement of the discharge is electricity. Understanding Current This flow of electrical charge is referred to as electric current. There are two types of current, direct current DC and alternating current AC. DC is current that flows in one direction with a constant voltage polarity while AC is current that changes direction periodically along with its voltage polarity. But as societies grew the use of DC over long transmission distances became too inefficient.

This circuit is known as a voltage divider circuit.

The supply voltage was divided among the loads in proportion to the resistance each load carries. This law states that the algebraic sum of the voltages in a closed loop is always equal to zero. If we only knew the supply potential and the voltage drop of R1, we could use KVL to find the other voltage drop.

With KVL you have to follow the current path and use the polarities of the components shown. If current path is unknown you have to assume one.

We will use the positive to negative clockwise path. KVL really comes in handy when there are multiple supplies in a loop or multiple loops.

## Understanding Basic Electrical Theory

As mentioned previously, with parallel circuits the voltage across each branch will be equal to the supply voltage. First we need to find the total resistance in the circuit. In series circuits we would just add all of the resistance values together.

In parallel, you have to add the reciprocals of all the resistance values together and then reciprocate back. High fives all around! One quick note, current will always try to take the path of least resistance. I was taught to think that current flows much the same as water.

If you have two channels in a river and one is partially blocked by logs, then most of the water will flow through the clear channel. Same is true with current.

In a parallel circuit, the branch with the least amount of blockage or resistance will receive the majority of the current. In our example both channels are partially blocked but the one that is most clear R2 will receive the most current.

Pop Quiz, what if R2 was to short out? Well, in a short there is no resistance, so all of the current would flow though that branch. The wire could overheat causing the worm to lose its glow and quite possibly everything else. This law basically states that current into a node will equal the current out of the node. P is for power measured in Watts, I is for current and the E is for voltage.

Using the previous parallel example, we can find the power consumed by the circuit. There are two types of current, direct current DC and alternating current AC. DC is current that flows in one direction with a constant voltage polarity while AC is current that changes direction periodically along with its voltage polarity.

## A Textbook of Electrical Technology volume 4 by theraja

But as societies grew the use of DC over long transmission distances became too inefficient. Nikola Tesla changed all that with the invention of alternating current electrical systems. With AC it is possible to produce the high voltages needed for long transmissions.

Therefore today, most portable devices use DC power while power plants produce AC. The V is for voltage, which means the potential difference between two charges.

In other words, it is a measurement of the work required to move a unit charge between two points. When we see a value such as 10 Volts, it is a measurement of the potential difference between two reference points.

As mentioned previously, current is the measurement of the flow of charge in a circuit. This leaves us with the letter R which represents Resistance. Electrical resistance, measured in Ohms, is the measure of the amount of current repulsion in a circuit. Simply, resistance resists current flow. When electrons flow against the opposition offered by resistance in the circuit, friction occurs and heat is produced. The most common application for resistance in a circuit is the light bulb.

The light bulb introduces enough resistance in a circuit to heat up the filament inside, causing light to be emitted. Resistance in a circuit can also be helpful when needing to alter voltage levels, current paths, etc. Resistors are self-contained packages of resistance that can be added to a circuit and are commonly used to divide voltage levels. First, we need to understand what Series and Parallel circuits mean. Series circuits are those which are connected in-line with the power source.

The current in series circuits is constant throughout but the voltage may vary. Parallel circuits are those which branch off from the power supply. The total current supplied from the power source is divided among each of the branches but voltage is common throughout.

You have probably experienced the pain involved with installing Christmas lights only to realize none of them work. Cue Clark Griswold! Course Available from: OR Delta. C Machines PDF 0. C Generators PDF 0. C Motors PDF 0.

## Basic Electrical Engineering - BEE Study Materials | PDF FREE DOWNLOAD

Machines PDF 0. Module Name Download. Introducing the Course on Basic Electrical. Introduction of Electric Circuit. Loop Analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages and currents.

Node-voltage analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages and currents.